3R (Replacement, Reduction og Refinement)

William Russel and Rex Burch conceptualized the 3Rs, which they presented and outlined in their book “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique”, in 1959.

The increasing use of laboratory animals in research made it necessary to focus on animal welfare and the ethical considerations involved with subjecting them to pain, and related stress. The wish to support the research community in collectively following guidelines to reduce the number of laboratory animals used, and to alleviate animal suffering, became Russel and Burch’s 3R concept: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement.


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