3R (Replacement, Reduction og Refinement)

William Russell and Rex Burch were the authors of the concept of the 3Rs, which they described in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique in 1959.

The increasing use of laboratory animals in research made it necessary to focus on animal welfare and theethical issues involved in subjecting them to pain and related stress. The wish to enable the research community to collectively follow certain guidelines to reduce the number of laboratory animals and alleviate animal suffering became Russell and Burch’s 3R concept:  Replacement, Reduction and Refinement.


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